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Medieval

Welcome knights and noblewomen to the medieval page at Moonsmuses.com, where flights of fancy and whimsy stand as equals among my Muses. You will also find information on herbs, recipes and traditions from "Medieval Times". I hope you will enjoy taking a peek back in time and perhaps even, trying a recipe or two.

I find it so wonderful to read about some of the herbs used back then, and to look into my own garden and find the same amazing plant life, it's like having a direct link to my ancestors of old. But as "romanticized" as this past era has become, I LOVE living in MY century and would not trade it for all the riches in the world.

"Ye be welcome. Wyll it please youe to sytt or stonde be the fyre a litell while? The nyghtes be prety and colde now. A roste apple ye shall have, and fenell seede. Mor we wyl not promyse youe."

~ Quotation from A Fifteenth Century Schoolbook,

Dragon Soup

14 hot onions (or 6 shallots and 2 cloves of garlic)
1 pinch salt
1 handful dill
1 handful parsley
1 pinch black pepper
1 skin goat's milk
much clean water
dragon meat (ingredients listed do up to 10 pounds)

In a cauldron, bring water to a boil Chop the onions (and garlic, if used) finely. Stir this in , adding salt, dill, and pepper to the pot.

Remove any scaly, inedible outer hide from the dragon meat. Cut the meat into manageable portions, and drop it into the pot--which must be at a roiling boil. Let boil while an inch is burned down on a thumb-thick candle. Then, stop feeding the fire. As the pot cools, stir in the goat's milk and the parsley. Let stand until the fat and oil present in all dragon meat comes to the surface. Skim this off, and then reheat the mixture for dining. Uncooked dragon meat keeps six sunrises. Cooked meat keeps for twice that.

~ Please note the above recipe is for amusement only, PLEASE do not hurt any dragons trying to recreate it, thanks...

" Monday for wealth, Tuesday for health,
Wednesday the best day of all ;
Thursday for losses, Friday for crosses
And Saturday no luck at all "

Medieval Weddings

The Honeyed Moon

Few know that the term 'honeymoon' is a specific reference to mead, originating from a medieval English tradition that after any wedding ceremony, nuptial couples were given a month’s supply of mead, enough for one full cycle of the moon. It was believed that by faithfully drinking mead for the first month, the bride would bear fruit and a child would be born within the year. If, indeed, the woman conceived, success was attributed to the skill of the meadmaker. The ability to produce life was believed to be inspired through the indulgence of the gods who gave humans access to the dew of heaven: honey, for their mead.

- from 'Mad About Mead' by Pamela Spence

Origin of the Wedding Cake

"In medieval England, guests brought small cakes and piled them on the center of a table. The bride and groom then attempted to kiss over them. A baker from France conceived the idea of icing all the small cakes together in one large cake."

(Aug/Sept issue of Modern Bride)"

Medieval Grooms Cake

1 pound butter
1/4 cup water
1 pound flour
1/2 teaspoon soda
3 1/2 lb currants
1/4 cup brown sugar
2 1/2 lb raisins
1/2 TB mace
1/4 lb citron
1/2 TB nutmeg
1/4 lb dates
1/2 TB cinnamon
10 eggs
1/4 TB crushed cloves
1/2 cup molasses
1/2 cup crushed walnuts

Cream butter, eggs and sugar. Add water and molasses. Sift flour, soda and spices and add to batter slowly. Stir in currants, raisins and citron. Add any other 'magic herbs and spices'. Pour into prepared pans and bake in a slow oven (250-300) until knife inserted in center comes out clean. Time will vary from 40 to 50 minutes, according to oven.

Wedding Dreams

To dream of sage means that you will marry.
To dream of a wreath of flowers means a new love.
To dream of a basket of flowers indicates a birth or a wedding.
To dream of clover means a happy and prosperous marriage.
To dream of myrtle-blossom means a wedding is to occur.
To dream of forget-me-nots indicates that you will soon find a new love..
To dream of violets means that your spouse will be younger than yourself.

- from "Garden Spells" by Claire Nahmad

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Strewing Herbs

Strewing herbs were used mixed with, or instead of, rushes or straw to cover floors and odors.

1. Bassell [basil], fine and busht, sowe in May.
2. Bawlme [Lemon Balm?], set in Marche
3. Camamel [Camomile]
4. Costemary [Costmary/Bible Leaf]
5. Cowsleps and paggles.
6. Daisies of all sorts
7. Sweet fennell
8. Germander
9. Hop, set in Febru arie.
10. Lavender
11. Lavender spike
12. Lavender cotten [santolina]
13. Marjorom, knotted, sow or set, at the spring.
14. Mawdelin
15. Peny ryall [Pennyroyal]
16. Roses of all sorts, in January and September
17. Red myntes [peppermint?]
18. Sage
19. Tansey
20. Violets
21. Winter savery.

~ From Thomas Tusser's Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry

Medieval Herb List

Offered as historical information, we make no medical claims.

Key to use:

P ~ used for a deadly plant. Used as a painkiller
mp ~ used for mild poison
M ~ used for a magical plant
W ~ used for a herb that was used as a remedy for wounds
F ~ used for a herb that was used as a remedy for fractures
B ~ used for a herb that was used as a remedy for burns
A ~ used for a herb that was an "all-heal"

ALDER / (leppa) -B

Medicinal use: burns (bark)

ANGELICA / (Angelica Archangelica) - M

Medicinal use: plague, respiratory diseases
Magic & beliefs:M It was believed that plant would protect a person who carried it from witchcraft
Historical notes: According to legend, Archangel Gabriel revealed the powers of this Nordic plant to the Benedictine monks hence its Latin name Angelica Archangelica. Angelica was the only medicinal plant that was brought from Scandinavia to Central and Southern Europe. During the Middle Ages it was commonly cultivated in monasteries.

ANISE / (anis) - A

Medicinal use: all-heal. (e.g. all poisonous bites and stings)

APPLE TREES

Medicinal use: eye diseases, fever, gout, heart diseases, stomach troubles
Historical notes: a related species, quince, was very common in medieval monasteries.

BARLEY / (ohra) - B

edicinal use: burnt barley seeds and eggs were recommended as a remedy for burns. The bag of hot seeds was used used externally to kill pain.

BASIL / (basilika) - M

Medicinal use: scorpion bites, stomach troubles. It was also used to drive away flies.
Magic & beliefs: Aphrodisiac. In addition, it was believed that basil bred scorpions. According to one recipe " three crushed leaves are put under a clay pot. After a few days a tiny scorpion will be born ". With the help of basil one could also summon scorpions. Pliny claimed that a handful of basil pounded with 10 sea crabs would do the trick.

BLESSED THISTLE / (Gnicus Benedictus) -- mp

Medicinal use: Together with butterbur, the plant was considered to be the most effective remedy for plague.
Historical notes: As the Latin name hints, this thorny bush was very common in medieval monasteries.

BUCKBEAN

Medicinal use: appetite and digestive problems, intestinal worms
Historical notes: Buckbean was among the most important medicinal plants of Medieval Europe.

CARAWAY / (kumina) - M

Medicinal use: scorpion stings, snake bites, fever, respiratory diseases, digestive problems, stomach troubles
Magic & beliefs : Caraway was an important ingredient in love potions. It also offered protection from the evil eye. In addition, it prevented mischievous spirits and thieves from entering the house.

CHAMOMILE

Medicinal use: fatigue, fever, snake bites. Women used it to ease the pains of labour

CHERRY TREE

Medicinal use: cough, eye diseases, fever, stomach problems

CHERVIL

Medicinal use: burns, bad dreams, stomach ailments

CHICORY - M

Magic & beliefs: according to Pliny "those who have anointed themselves with the juice of chicory, mixed with oil, become more popular and obtain their requests more easily."

CHIVES

Medicinal use: cough, respiratory diseases

CLOVES - M

Medicinal use: plague
Magic & beliefs: aphrodisiac

COLTSFOOT - W

Medicinal use: Inhaling the smoke of the burning leaves was believed to be an effective remedy for cough and other respiratory diseases. It was also used to cure wounds.

COMMON COMFREY - B, F, W

Medicinal use: burns, fractures, wounds, pain killer
Historical notes: Arabs introduced this plant to crusaders, who brought it to Europe. It was a fairly important herb in Medieval Europe.

COMMON RUE - A, W, M

Medicinal use: all-heal
Magic & beliefs: Rather powerful plant. For example, Pliny tells us that person who carries it is never bitten by venomous creatures. It was also thought to have a power to repel evil spirits. And finally it protected people from plague and other deadly epidemics.
Historical notes: Charlemagne mentioned it and it was quite common in the monasteries (e.g. at Saint Gallen in the 10th century)

CORIANDER - M

cramps, paralysation, sleeplessness, cough, plague, worms
Magic & beliefs: Coriander was believed to improve memory. In addition it was claimed that it also increased potency.

COWBANE - P , M

Medicinal use: Cowbane is a very poisonous plant and internal use will quite often lead to a painful death. The symptoms are cramps, hallucinations and eventually paralysis of the respiratory organs. Despite the dangers, this herb was used as a pain killer and also as a remedy for epilepsy and cramps.
Magic & beliefs: Among the most important plants of medieval witchcraft
Historical notes: Because of its believed ability to stop sexual desire the plant was commonly cultivated in the monastic gardens

COWSLIP

Medicinal use: paralysation, strokes
Magic & beliefs: important magical plant

CRESS

Medicinal use: Remedy for cough, eye diseases, parasites, respiratory diseases, restlessness, scorpion stings
Magic & beliefs: According to Pliny, the smoke of burning cress keeps away serpents

CYPRESS/ - (cypressi) - W

Medicinal use: Remedy for the poison of spiders, scorpion stings, snake bites, wounds.

DEADLY NIGHTSHADE, BELLADONNA (belladonna) - P, M

Medicinal use : pain killer, nervousness
Magic & beliefs : Deadly nightshade, devil's herb, enchanter's nightshade. All these names reflect the bad reputation that this plant has had for centuries. Just for example, an unknown Greek scholar tells us that even a small amount of this notorious plant can cause madness. Another reveals that one dose will cause hallucinations, two downright insanity and three an instant death. So, it is no wonder that such a deadly and hallucinogenic herb was - together with henbane, cowbane, mandrake and monkshood - among the most important plants of Medieval witchcraft. Assassins, though, preferred other herbs because the symptoms of the belladonna poisoning were pretty commonly known.
Historical notes In Italy, women used to wash their eyes with a diluted juice of deadly nightshade in order to enhance their beauty (this treatment enlarged the pupils). Hence it's other name, belladonna.

DILL

Medicinal use: eye diseases, stomach ailments
Magic & beliefs: Dill protected people from witchcraft. In addition, if one placed the seeds of the plant in one's shoe before entering the court room, one would win the case.

FENNEL - M

Medicinal use: For more than 15 hundred years fennel was thought to be the most effective remedy for eye diseases. In addition to eye diseases it was also used to cure fever, insanity and stomach ailments.
Magic & beliefs: it was thought that fennel hung over door prevented witches from entering the house.

FOXGLOVE - t

Medicinal use: From the 11th to 18th century foxglove was mainly used to cure dropsy. Overdoses were often lethal.

GARLIC - A, M

Medicinal use: all-heal
Magic & beliefs: Garlic protected people from various kinds of evil forces. (e.g. plague, witchcraft, vampires, scorpions and snakes). Like many other magical plant it was also an aphrodisiac (if taken with coriander and neat wine). It was also believed to increase courage.

GINGER - M

Medicinal use: flu, poisons, stomach ailments
Magic & beliefs: It was claimed that ginger prevented people from getting older. It also offered protection from plague and was an ingredient in love potions.

HEMLOCK - P, M

Medicinal use: pain killer
Magic & beliefs: A deadly plant, but the symptoms of poisoning are less painful than if cowbane is used. Common ingredient in the potions of witches of old as well as assassins.

HENBANE - P, M

Medicinal use: pain killer, anaesthetic. For example it was commonly used in amputations and other surgical operations.
Magic & beliefs: Henbane's hallucinogenic and deadly properties have been known for hundreds of years. E.g. It is believed that Delphi's oracle, Pythia, received her visions by inhaling the smoke of the burning seeds of henbane. The plant was also very popular among the assassins and witches of Medieval Europe. The latter used it in ointments that they used to rub into their skins. Scholars believe that these ointments caused hallucinations, such as the sensation of flying.
Historical notes: Surgeons of the School of Salerno (900-) used the plant as a pain killer. Henbane juice was also used as an arrow poison.

HOPS

Medicinal use: mildly narcotic, enhances appetite
Historical notes: It was believed that hops stopped sexual desire. Therefore it was commonly cultivated in the monasteries. (e.g. Saint Gallen in the 8th century)

HOREHOUND

Medicinal use: cough, snake bites, stomach ailments.

HORSERADISH - M

Medicinal use: cough, dropsy, fever, gout, parasites, respiratory diseases, stomach ailments,
Magic & beliefs:If one has a piece of horseradish in one's purse during the New Year's Eve, one shall not run out of money during the next year.

HOUSELEEK - M

Magic & beliefs: It was believed that houseleek protects houses from storms and lightning. It also prevented evil spirits from entering the house.

JOHN'S WORT - M, W

Medicinal use: wounds, infections, pains of labour
Magic & beliefs: The juice of the plant protected books from mice and insects

JUNIPER - M

Medicinal use: Chewing the seeds and drinking white wine was believed to be an effective remedy for pain. Inhaling the smoke of burning juniper cured cough and killed parasites. Juniper was also used to cure sprains.
Magic & beliefs: The smoke of the burning juniper was supposed to protect people from plague and other epidemics. In addition, it was claimed that it would prevent faeries from stealing infants. Finally, juniper was thought to have a power to repel evil spirits.

LADY'S MANTLE - W

Medicinal use: wounds
Magic & beliefs: Lady's mantle played an important part in alchemists' efforts to create the potion of youth.

LAUREL - M

Medicinal use: fever, flu, gout, respiratory diseases, skin diseases, stomach ailments
Magic & beliefs: Laurel protected people from lightning, plague, hallucinations and demons. People believed that if a pregnant woman ate 7 berries beforehand, the labour would be painless

LEMON BALM

Medicinal use: It was believed to be an effective remedy for depression, heart diseases, restlessness, sleeplessness and also for stomach ailments

LIQUORICE

Medicinal use: cough, fever, respiratory diseases.

LOVAGE - M

Medicinal use: asthma, dropsy, gout, snakebites, sore throat, stomach troubles
Magic & beliefs: Lovage was commonly used in love potions. In addition the plant also acted as a sentry of the home; if planted in front of the house lovage was supposed to keep off all evil forces, such as plague, snakes, insects etc.
Historical notes: Given the plants medical and magical powers, it is no wonder that lovage was an extremely important herb during the Middle Ages. Therefore a garden without this plant would be very rare.

MALLOW - A, M

Medicinal use: all-heal
Magic & beliefs: Mallow was an important ingredient in love potions.

MANDRAKE -P, M

Medicinal use : The herb was used as an anaesthetic in surgical operations. A special anaesthetic potion was invented in Bologna in the 13th century. Ingredients were poppy, mandrake and vinegar.
Magic & beliefs: Medieval witches used this herb in their ointments and potions. Care had to be taken when mandrake was plucked.

MARIGOLD - W, M

Medicinal use: marigold was among the most important remedies for wounds. The plant also cured bites and stomach ailments and infections.
Magic & beliefs: aphrodisiac

MINTS - M

Medicinal use: cough, flu, respiratory diseases, stomach troubles
Magic & beliefs: Various species prevented drunkenness and protected people from the evil eye. Mints were also aphrodisiacs.

MONKSHOOD - P, M

Medicinal use: pain killer
Magic & beliefs: witches and assassins used regularly this plant as an ingredient in their potions and ointments.

MUGWORT - M

Medicinal use: flu, parasites, women's diseases
Magic & beliefs: Mugwort was believed to be a rather magical plant. For example it was said that this plant, if wrapped around a traveller, would protect her from wild beasts, fatigue and poisons. It was also believed that mugwort would protect valuable books by repelling bookworms and other insects.

MUSTARD - M

Medicinal use: gout, scorpion stings
Magic & beliefs: aphrodisiac. According to one recipe, mustard mixed with mint and wine would make women lustful.

NETTLE - A, M

Medicinal use: all-heal
Magic & beliefs: aphrodisiac

NETTLE - A, M

Medicinal use: all-heal
Magic & beliefs: aphrodisiac

NUTMEG

Medicinal use: epilepsy, eye diseases, stomach ailments
Magic & beliefs: Keeping nutmeg in your pocket during the New Year's Eve. will protect you during the next year, if they happened to fall from a roof, cliff, ladder or other high place. Few could afford this though, because nutmeg was an extremely expensive spice during Middle Ages. Another story - told by a monk - claims that nutmeg is useful for men, because its ability to enhance potency.

OREGANO - M

Medicinal use: all poisonous bites, cramps, dropsy
Magic & beliefs: Oregano was quite a powerful plant because a person who carried it with him was believed to be protected from the witches, water sprites, demons and venomous animals. It was also believed that the smoke of burning oregano prevented the devil from helping his servants. Therefore twigs were commonly burnt during torture sessions by the inquisitors. This small bush had also a power to repel snakes from the garden.

PARSLEY - M

Medicinal use: parasites, poisons.
Magic & beliefs: Parsley was associated with the devil. The plant germinates notoriously slowly and people claimed that seeds must go seven times to hell to ask permission to grow. If the seeds didn't germinate, the person who planted them was believed to die during the next year.

POPPY - P

Medicinal use: Poppy was used mainly as a remedy for pain. It was also used to cure cough and restlessness

ROSEMARY - M, S, F, W

Medicinal use: Remedy for: sprains, fractures, wounds, cough, dizziness, stomach troubles
Magic & beliefs : Rosemary, if hung around the neck, protected from plague whereas the twig offered protection against the evil eye. It was also claimed that people who sniffed the flowers of the herb regularly retained their youthfulness. In addition to this, rosemary prevented faeries from stealing infants.

ROSES

Medicinal use: fatigue, eye diseases, heart diseases, respiratory diseases, sleeplessness, stomach troubles, womens' diseases.

SAFFRON - M

Medicinal use: Saffron was an ingredient in famous Mithridates' antidote. Thanks to this, the herb was believed to be effective against all kinds of poisons. Cough, sleeplessness, the pains of labour and depression were also cured by saffron. The expensiveness of the spice limited its use though.
Magic & beliefs: aphrodisiac

SAGE / (salvia ) - A, M

Medicinal use: 'How can a man die when sage is growing in the garden?' This often quoted sentence describes pretty well the omnipotence of sage. The bush was definitely among the most important medicinal herbs of Medieval Europe. It was believed to have the power to cure all imaginable diseases and therefore a Covenant garden without it would be extremely rare.
Magic & beliefs: aphrodisiac

SOLOMON'S SEAL - F, W

Medicinal use: The crushed root was perhaps the most important remedy for fractures. Root was also used externally to heal wounds.

SORREL - M

Medicinal use epidemics, fever, stomach troubles
Magic & beliefs: A medieval belief was "those who carry it on their person are protected from scorpion stings"

SUMMER SAVORY - (M)

Medicinal use: bites of animals.
Magic & beliefs: aphrodisiac. It was thought that the herb had a power to drive away insects

THYME - B, M

Medicinal use: burns, cough, respiratory diseases, sprains, stomach ailments, womens' diseases
Magic & beliefs: Like many other herbs, thyme protected medieval people from witchcraft. It was also claimed that eating thyme increased courage whereas the smoke of the burning herb was believed to offer a protection from poisonous bites. Thyme was also an ingredient in a potion that enabled people to see faeries.

VALERIAN - A, M, mp

Medicinal use: all-heal
Magic & beliefs: Yet another very powerful plant. People believed that valerian would deflect all evil plans away from the person who carried the herb. In addition, the root of the herb offered protection from evil and libidinous faeries. Cattle, if washed with the juice of valerian, were protected from earth sprites. The plant was also an aphrodisiac. For example valerian mixed with neat wine was supposed to turn even the most virtuous woman lustful.

VERVAIN - W

Medicinal use: among the most important remedies for wounds
Magic & beliefs: vervain was believed to protect people from metal weapons

WHITE WILLOW

Medicinal use: the skin, if boiled with water, was a pain killer

WORMWOOD -mp, A, M

Medicinal use: Wormwood was an all-heal, but as the name hints the herb was used mainly to kill and repel all kinds of insects.
Magic & beliefs: This plant had strange powers. For example, the person who has wormwood in her shoe is protected from seasickness and sea monsters. In addition, the fellow who carries the twig of the herb is protected from fatigue. It was also believed that wormwood juice repelled bookworms and other nasty bugs. Therefore medieval scholars used to add this juice to their ink in order to protect their books. Others preferred rinsing vellum sheets with the same juice. People also thought that wormwood would turn moths away from wardrobes. It was also claimed that wormwood, if cultivated in the garden, would keep off all kinds of snakes.

YARROW - W

Medicinal use: Yarrow was without doubt a major healing herb during the middle ages. It served not only doctors but also common folk - like carpenters - who carried it in their pouches as a first aid kit. It was mainly used to heal wounds and to prevent infections.

~ Compiled by Barbara Morris

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The magicians perform no rites without using the foliage of those trees [oaks]... it may be supposed that it is from this custom that they get their name of 'Druids'... from the Greek word meaning 'oak'. - Pliny, Natural History XVI, 95

Harvesting Dill

...Then as now, mankind knew what tasted good, and the sauces, stews, pies, roasts, and soups that satisfied the 14th c. family are just as wholesome and good today....

A Salat

Salads, made mainly of herbs, were popular throughout the Middle Ages, often served at the start of a meal, rather than after the main course. The make up of the salad would change according to the season and what grew in the cook's herb garden, so feel free to adapt this basic recipe as desired. Do NOT make it with dried herbs!

2 bunches of watercress
2 cartons of mustard and cress
1 medium leek, very finely sliced
6 spring onions or scallions, chopped small
1 bulb of fennel, slicked in thin match-sticks
1 large handful of fresh parsley, pull off into small sprigs
the leaves from 1 young sprig of fresh rosemary
the leaves from 4-6 prigs of fresh mint, slightly chopped
6 fresh sage leaves, slightly copped
the leaves from 2 small branches of thyme
a few leaves from any other herb you have (take care not to use too much of any very strong flavoured ones)
sea salt and freshly ground black pepper
2-3 tablespoons wine vinegar
4-5 tablespoons olive oil

Wash the cresses, herbs and fennel and dry all thoroughly. Mix them, with the leek and spring onions, in a large bowl, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and mix again. Mix the oil with the vinegar and pour over the salad just before serving.

~ The British Museum Cookbook_ by Michelle Berriedale-Johnson (1987, British Museum Publications Ltd.).

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A Salad of Watercress & Violets

Watercress being finely picked, washed, and laid in the dish with violets ... serve it with good oyl and vinegar and scrape on sugar.

~ The Accomplisht Cook, Robert May, 1660

The Modern Version

1/2 cup fragrant violets (viola odorata), be sure they haven't been sprayed with insecticide.
2 bunches watercress
3 Tbsp white wine vinegar
4 Tbsp olive oil
1/4 tsp salt
1 tsp brown sugar

Rinse the flowers gently in a bowl of cold water and pat dry. Remove the stems and refridgerate the flowers until needed. Wash the watercress and remove the coarse stems. Wrap in a towel and refridgerate until ready to assemble the salad.

Mix the oil, vinegar, salt, and sugar until blended. In a salad bowl, add the dressing to the watercress and toss until coated. Add the violets and toss gently to distribute them throughout the salad.

To Make A Sallet Of Lemmons

Cut out the slices of the peel of the Lemmons long Waies, a quarter of an inch one piece from an-other, and then slice the lemmon very thin, and lay in a dish Crosst, and the peels about the Lemmons, and scrape a good deale of sugar upon them, and so serve them.

~ The Good Huswifes Jewell, Thomas Dawson, 1596

The Modern Version:
4 large lemons
6 Tbsps sugar (raw sugar works best, if you can find it)

After washing and drying the lemons, use a vegetable peeler and remove narrow strips of peel lengthwise, half an inch apart, and reserve. (Though less authentic, I use a zester to remove the strips since it is much easier and makes a more esthetic presentation). Slice the lemons as thinly as possible. Remove seeds. Arrange the slices on a platter in an X pattern, sprinkle the sugar over them, and garnish with the lemon peel. Pass a bowl of additional sugar when serving for guests who prefer a sweeter flavor.

Rose Cordial

Ingredients:

4 cups sugar
2.5 cups water
3 Tbsp lemon juice
1 Tbsp rosewater (or more to taste - I like it very strong and use at least double this. I don't doubt that cooks in period would have done much the same thing!)
2-3 drops red food colour

Method:

Bring the water, sugar & lemon to the boil, stirring. Lower heat and simmer 10 mins. Remove syrup from heat, add rosewater and colour. Cover and cool. Bottle when cold.

To Serve:
Dilute 1:5 with ice water

~ Mistress Rowan Peregrine

Rose Wine

1 jug red or white wine (can be chilled)
1/4 c honey
2 Tbls rose water
Unsprayed rose petals, rinsed (be sure about no pesticides)

Combine ingredients in punch bowl, stir gently. Petals will float to top.

English Saffron Bread

Ingredients:

2 tsp. Saffron
1/2 cup boiling water
1 1/2 cups scalded milk
1 cup butter
1 cup sugar
2 packages dry yeast
2 eggs
1 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. nutmeg
1 tsp. cinnamon
6 cups flour
3 Tbs. lemon rind, grated
2 cups currants (optional)

Preparations

Steep Saffron in boiling water for 5 minutes. Drain and reserve liquid.
Pour scalded milk over butter and sugar.
Stir to melt butter. Cool to warm then stir in yeast.
Add saffron liquid and eggs.
Blend well.
Add dry ingredients.
Dough should be stiff.
Knead, shape into a ball,
place in bowl, cover and let rise until doubled.
Punch down, divide into three equal sections,
knead each section and roll out into 15-inch ropes.
Braid the three ropes together,
place on a greased baking sheet and let rise again until doubled.
Bake at 350 degrees (F) for 1 hour, or until loaf sounds hollow when tapped with a finger.

Ginger Bread

Ingredients:

1 cup of Honey
1/4 teaspoon of Powdered ginger (generous)
1/8 teaspoon of Ground cloves
1/8 teaspoon of Cinnamon
1/8 teaspoon of Ground licorice
1 3/4 cup of Dry bread crumbs
1 tablespoon of Anise seeds

Preparations

1. In the top of a double boiler, heat honey.
2. Add spices except anise seeds, and stir to blend.
3. Add bread crumbs and mix thoroughly. Cover and cook over medium heat for 15 minutes. Mixture should be thick and moist.
4. Place gingerbread on a large sheet of waxed paper. Fold up sides of paper and mold dough into small rectangular shape.
5. Sprinkle anise seeds on top and press them gently into dough with the side of a knife. 6. Cover and refrigerate for 2 hours.
7. Serve gingerbread at room temperature in thin slices. Serves 6-8.

Herb Butter

1 tbs. each parsley and sweet basil
2 lbs. butter, softened
2 Tbs. additional butter
4 Tbs. Honey

Melt the 2 Tbs. of butter in a skillet over medium heat.
Add the herbs and allow to cook just until aromatic.
Remove from heat and allow to cool.
Add the honey and the herb mixture to the remainder of the butter and blend thoroughly.
Spoon mixture into individual serving dishes; allow setting, then serving with bread.
Blend with chopped nuts or spices (cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves, ginger, etc.) for a variation

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